Jonathan Mayhew (1750)

The apostle enters upon his subject thus–Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers; for there is no power but of God: the powers that be, are ordained of God. Here he urges the duty of obedience from this topic of argument, that civil rulers, as they are supposed to fulfil the pleasure of God, are the ordinance of God. But how is this an argument for obedience to such rulers as do not perform the pleasure of God, by doing good; but the pleasure of the devil, by doing evil; and such as are not, therefore, God’s ministers, but the devil’s!

Source: JONATHAN MAYHEW, A Discourse concerning Unlimited Submission and Non-Resistance to the Higher Powers: with Some Reflections on the resistance Made to King Charles I. 1750.

John Woolman (1739)

In a few months after I came here, my master bought several Scotchmen servants, from on board a vessel, and brought them to Mount Holly to sell, one of whom was taken sick and died. In the latter part of his sickness, being delirious, he used to curse and swear most sorrowfully; and the next night after his burial I was left to sleep alone in the chamber where he died. I perceived in me a timorousness; I knew, however, I had not injured the man, but assisted in taking care of him according to my capacity. I was not free to ask any one on that occasion to sleep with me. Nature was feeble; but every trial was a fresh incitement to give myself up wholly to the service of God, for I found no helper like him in times of trouble.

Source: The Journal of John Woolman. The Harvard Classics. “1720–1742

William Penn (1683)

He was in Pennsylvania only three and a half years. But from 1681, when he received the King’s charter at the age of thirty-seven to 1718, when he died, Pennsylvania was one of his chief preoccupations. The growth and well-being of his colony was based on a tradition of religious toleration and freedom under law, fundamental principles of American civil life. Thomas Jefferson called Penn “the greatest law-giver the world has produced.”

Source: “William Penn in Pennsylvania.” Text by Paul A.W. Wallace and James P. O’Rrien; edited by Harold L. Myers. Pennsbury Manor.



Some Fruits of Solitude


A Brief Account of the Rise and Progress of the People Called Quakers

A Sermon Preached at the Quaker’s Meeting House, in Gracechurch-Street, London, Eighth Month 12th, 1694.

Google Books:

An Essay Towards the Present and Future Peace of Europe

He must not be a man, but a statue of brass or stone, whose bowels do not melt when he beholds the bloody tragedy of this war . . .

No Cross, No Crown

George Fox (1672)

We came one night to an Indian town, and lay at the house of the king, who was a very pretty man. Both he and his wife received us very lovingly, and his attendants (such as they were) were very respectful to us. They gave us mats to lie on; but provision was very short with them, they having caught but little that day. At another Indian town where we stayed the king came to us, and he could speak some English. I spoke to him much, and also to his people; and they were very loving to us.

Source: “Two years in America,” a chapter from GEORGE FOX: An Autobiography, Edited with an Introduction and Notes by Rufus M. Jones, M.A., Litt. D. Professor of Philosophy in Haverford College.

Dekanawida (1451)

The founder of the Confederacy of the Five Nations is generally acknowledged to be Dekanawida, born near the Bay of Quinte, in southeastern Ontario, Canada. During his travels, he associated himself with a Mohawk tribal lord in what is now New York, and named him Hahyonhwatha (Hiawatha) (He who has misplaced something, but knows where to find it). Hiawatha left his family and friends, and joined Dekanawida in his travels, becoming his chief spokesman. One legend has it that Dekanawida, while brilliant, had a speech impediment, and depended on Hiawatha to do his public speaking for him. Together, they traveled the length and breadth of the lands on the south shores of Lakes Erie and Ontario, as well as the river to the sea, now known as the St. Lawrence. These were the homelands of tribes with a common heritage, but who had been warring with one another for many years. Dekanawida united them into a League of Nations that we now call the Iroquois League. Centuries later, Longfellow “borrowed” the name of Hiawatha to be his hero in a fictional legend; there is no other connection between the two Hiawathas nor their stories.Here is their original Constitution, as best it can be reconstructed from legend and spoken history. Read it and be amazed…keep in mind it is over 500 years old!

Source: Modern History Sourcebook: The Constitution of the Iroquois Confederacy. ABOUT THE IROQUOIS CONSTITUTION: by Gerald Murphy.

See Johansen on date estimate. (June 13, 1451)

[In Unix, dates prior to 1969 cause difficulty. There is a hack. . . ; however, at this point, I am trying to avoid base code issues.]